Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
27 août 2010 5 27 /08 /août /2010 23:01

FORMATION

 

[+/-Nominal Subject ] + Dafa [+/- object pronoun] [+/-di ] + verb [+/-nominal object]

 

 

 USUAL FORM
 
  SINGULAR PLURAL
1st pers.
dama
danu/ dañu
2nd pers. danga
dangeen
3rd pers. 
dafa
dañu
     
     
     
 ELONGATED FORM
 

SINGULAR
PLURAL
1st pers.  damaa
danoo/ dañoo
2nd pers. dangaa
dangeena
3rd pers. 
dafa/ daa
dañoo

 

 

 

 

1. WITH STATIVE VERBS
   
  a. Used to describe a state of being: character, color, weather, etc.
 

 

 

Dafa tang.  It is hot.

Dafa dof. He is crazy.

     
   b. Used to give the explicative or causal sense. Often both functions b) and c) are present together. Hence it often is the appropriate response to a particular situation or question.
   

A asks B: 'Doo génn tey?'  Aren't you going out today?

B replies: 'Déedéet, dafa tang.'  No, (because) it is hot.

 

A greets B and remarks 'Tang na lool tey.'  It is very hot today.

 

Y asks X why he has stopped in the middle of his work.

X replies: 'Dama sonn.'  (Because) I am tired.

 

X walks into the house and flops down in a chair 'Sonn naa lool.'  I am very tired.

     
    For a small number of verbs dafa  sometimes indicates a state which has always existed contrasting with the completive mode (na) which indicates a process which has been completed. However, often there is no distinction between  dafa  and  na.
   

Dafa gumba.  He is blind (from birth).

Gumba na. He is blind (has become blind).

     
   c. Used to emphasize verb 
     
     
     
 2. WITH ACTIVE VERBS     
     
  a. Used to emphasize verb. 
   

Damay liggéey.  I am working (not playing) or What I am doing is working.

This is proper form to use after the question: 'Looy def?

     
   b. Used to give the explicative or causal sense. 
     
   c. Used in conjunction with  di  to indicate an action practiced habitually in the present, including professions, an action happening at the time or in the near future. 
    Damay xëy.  I go to work (every day). 
     
     
     
 3.

USE WITH DI 

 

Di  indicates the action is not yet accomplished. It appears as  -y  except after dangeen, where it appears as di. The absence of  di  indicates an event which has been completed or a present state.

   
 

 

   a.

When used with active verbs can indicate:

- an action in process of occurring

- an action just about to occur

- an action occurring habitually 

   

Damay dem. I am in the process of leaving./ I will leave./ I am in a habit of leaving.

 

Only context enables one to distinguish between the three. Note that  dinay dem can only indicate a habitual action.

     
 
     
  b. When used without a verb, indicates to be with an explicative value.
   

Damay tuurist. It is that I am a tourist. (explication of something)

Tuurist laa.  I am a tourist. (statement). 

     
     
     
 4.

ELONGATED FORM

   
     
    The elongated form is created by the addition of the suffix -a, which is a variant of di and indicates the action is not accomplished. If there is a pronoun object between the pronoun subject and the main verb, then the -a  is added to the object pronoun which elongates. When dafa  appears directly before an active verb, the elongated form above is used.
    Damay liggéey.  I am working. 
     
     
     
 5.

CONTRACTIONS

   
     
    dafay may be contracted to day or daf di (day used but not daf di in Mbane) 
    Dafay nelaw. He is sleeping.  
   = Day nelaw. It's because he is sleeping. 
   = Daf di nelaw. He sleeps habitually. 
     
    dañuy may be contracted to dañ (not used in Mbane).
     
     
     
 6. In rapid speech, when followed by object pronouns, the following contractions may occur (used in Mbane):     
   
  SINGULAR PLURAL
1st pers.
dam
dan
2nd pers.
dan
 
3rd pers.
daf
dañ

 

   

Dam ko def. (Dama ko def.)

Dan ko def. (Danga ko def.)

 
       
       
       
7. NEGATIVE
       
   a. Negative of verb if accomplished.
 
    Dama jàngul. It's because I haven't studied.
 
       
   b. Negative of di if unaccomplished.
 
    Dama dul jàng. It's because I am not studying.
 
       

 

Peace Corps Course

J'apprends le wolof

Baptist Course

PhD Thesis of Eric Church

Notes on Wolof Grammar (Stewart)

Initiation à la Grammaire Wolof (Samb)

Grammaire Wolof (Dial)

Xam sa làkk.

 

Richard Shawyer

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by wolofi - dans EN grammar
commenter cet article

commentaires

  • : Le Petit Wolof
  • Le Petit Wolof
  • : Du wolof et encore du wolof ainsi que ce que je vois de ma fenêtre.
  • Contact

The Wolof-Multilanguage Live Dictionary Project
Le Dictionnaire Wolof-Multilingue Vivant !



translator  wo-en en-wo grammar talk   $ 
      grammatik konversation  
HOME wo-fr fr-wo grammaire conversation sciences fr

Recherche

Chic Meteo
Holidays

♦ Las Vegas
♦ New York
♦ UTC/GMT
♦ Paris
♦ Dakar

 

 

NON à l'excision !

ŋ [ ] À Ññ Çç ß Óó Ëë Ïï Öö
 @ ½ ¼ Ää Üü ÷ ▀ ² ■ ª º

Clearskin Is Beautiful

 

Al-Nd-Petit-Wolof.jpg
Le Petit Wolof deviendra grand.
 
 

  
anti-xeesal.jpg  
Anti-xeesal Campaign.
       
 

 


pied_top.jpg